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Buoy System Design


General Information

  • Satellite and HF Radio communications
  • Meteorological sensors including wind speed and direction, air temperature, air pressure, precipitation, and solar radiation
  • Water temperature and salinity near the surface, mid-depth and bottom of the water column
  • Water speed and direction throughout the water column
  • Wave height, period and direction
  • Batteries and solar charging system
  • 5 nm LED light, radar reflector
  • Backup satellite-based tracking system

figures/buoy-dock-test.jpg/image_preview

Figure 1. Buoy at the dock for testing in-water packages on bottom frame.

figures/buoy-bottom-frame.jpg/image_preview

Figure 2. Bottom Frame with ADCP, CTD, and acoustic modem.

figures/buoy_block_diagram_50.png/image_preview

Figure 3. Block diagram of buoy system as implemented in 2007.


Power

  • Two (2) 12 V sealed marine batteries
  • Four (4) 45 Watt solar panels
  • Charge controller
  • Xantrex Link10 Power monitor

Parameters

Table 1. Analog and Serial Parameters (1 Hz)

Parameter Description
WSPD1 Wind Speed (volts) Anemometer 1 RM Young Marine Wind Monitor with signal interface
WDIR1 Wind Direction (volts)
WSPD2 Wind Speed (volts) Anemometer 2 RM Young Marine Wind Monitor with signal interface
WDIR2 Wind Direction (volts)
COMP Buoy direction (magN) PNI TCM2 Fluxgate compass (analog channel)
ATEMP Air Temperature (volts) Rotronic TEMP/RH
RH Relative Humidity (volts) Rotronic TEMP/RH
RAIN Rain Rate (volts) RM Young Self-Siphoning Precipitation Gauge
PSP Downwelling Visible Radiation (volts) Eppley PSP Radiometer
PIRs IR Surface Temperature (ch1, volts) Eppley PIR Radiometer [2 sec response, should have 0.5 Hz sample rate]
PIRd IR Dome Temperature (ch2, volts) Eppley PIR Radiometer
PIRc IR Case or Body Temperture (ch3, volts) Eppley PIR Radiometer
- -
BARO Barometric Pressure (psi) Heise Barometer
- "PS=+014.228"
- -
TOTAL 12 analog and 1 serial

Table 2. Standard Meteorological Parameters

Digitized, calibration coeff applied, process, average period either 6 min. Report either top of hour sample, last 10, or all since last transmission.
Parameter Recorded 6 min Reported each 1 Hr Description
TIME x x Time and Date (UTC) of sample average
WSPD1_avg x x Average Wind Speed (m/s) from vector average of (WSPD1, WDIR1+COMP)
WSPD1_std x x Std Dev. Wind Speed (m/s) from vector average of (WSPD1, WDIR1+COMP)
GUST1 x x Maximum Wind Speed (m/s) during average period of WSPD1
WDIR1_avg x x Average Wind Direction (magN)
WDIR1_std x x Variability of Wind Direction (magN)
- - - -
WSPD2_avg x x Average Wind Speed (m/s) from vector average of (WSPD2, WDIR2+COMP)
WSPD2_std x x Std Dev. Wind Speed (m/s) from vector average of (WSPD2, WDIR2+COMP)
GUST2 x x Maximum Wind Speed (m/s) during average period of WSPD2
WDIR2_avg x x Average Wind Direction (magN)
WDIR2_std x x Variability of Wind Direction (magN)
- - - -
ATEMP_avg x x Average Air Temp (deg C)
ATEMP_std x x Std Dev Air Temp (deg C)
RH_avg x x Average Relative Humidity (%)
RH_std x x Std Dev Relative Humidity (%)
- - - -
RAIN_tot x x Total rain (mm) for averaging period (sum(RAIN))
- - - -
PSP_avg x x Average PSP (W/m^2)
PSP_std x x Std Dev PSP (W/m^2)
PIR_avg x x Average Downwelling Infrared Radiation PIR (W/m^2) from (PIRs, PIRd, PIRc) [PAY1999]
PIR_std x x Std Dev Downwelling Infrared Radiation PIR (W/m^2)
- - - -
BARO_avg x x Average Pressure (mbar)
BARO_tend x x Pressure Tendency
- - - -
TOTAL 22 1-10  

Table 3. Buoy System Health and Location

GPS -- Garmin GPS 16 OEM (NMEA output strings)

LINK10 -- Xantrex Link10 Power Monitor

Parameter Recorded each 1 Hr Reported each 1 Hr Description
TIME x x Time and Date (UTC) of string received at computer
GPRMC x x time, lat, lon, speed and bearing, date, magnetic variation [used to set DAQ computer clock and monitor watch circle]
-     "$GPRMC,010040,A,3554.5571,N,07903.1342,W,000.0,109.8,260107,008.6,W*77"
GPGGA x x time, lat, lon, gps quality, number of satellites, hdop, vdop, altitude [used for fix quality]
-     "$GPGGA,010040,3554.5571,N,07903.1342,W,2,06,1.3,143.3,M,-33.4,M,,*76"
- - - -
LINK10 x x link10 time, kWh, amps, volts, amp hours, Peukert amp hours, Peukert amps, time remaining, bar graph state, temperature (deg C) [used to assess power system and buoy well temperature]
-     "32453,-00.08,-0000.0,13.25,-0000.0,-0000.0,-0000.0,255.0,5,08"
- - - -
TOTAL 3 1 strings

Table 4. Buoy Motion -- PNI TCM2 Fluxgate Compass (commanded serial output)

Parameter Recorded each 1 Hr Reported each 1 Hr Description
TIME x x Time and Date (UTC) of whole string received at computer
COMP     Compass -- Buoy Direction (magN)
PITCH     Pitch (deg +/-)
ROLL     Roll (deg +/-)
CTEMP     Compass Temperature (deg C)
- x x ["$C337.3P0.2R-5.0T18.5E001*73"]*30 == 1 Hz output for 30 sec
-     "$C337.3P0.2R-5.0T18.5E001*73 $C337.5P0.2R-5.0T18.5E001*75 $C337.2P0.0R-5.0T18.5E001*70 $C337.3P0.2R-5.0T18.5E001*73 $C337.0P0.0R-5.0T18.5E001*72 $C337.6P0.2R-5.0T18.5E001*76 $C337.0P0.0R-5.0T18.5E001*72 $C337.0P0.0R-5.0T18.5E001*72 $C337.4P0.2R-5.0T18.5E001*74 $C337.4P0.2R-5.0T18.5E001*74 $C337.0P0.0R-5.0T18.5E001*72 $C337.4P0.2R-5.0T18.5E001*74 $C337.3P0.2R-5.0T18.5E001*73 $C336.8P0.0R-5.0T18.5E001*7B $C337.2P0.2R-5.0T18.5E001*72 $C337.2P0.2R-5.0T18.5E001*72 $C336.8P0.0R-5.0T18.5E001*7B $C336.8P0.0R-5.0T18.5E001*7B $C337.0P0.0R-5.0T18.5E001*72 $C337.2P0.2R-5.0T18.5E001*72 $C336.8P0.0R-5.0T18.5E001*7B $C336.9P0.0R-5.0T18.5E001*7A $C337.3P0.2R-5.0T18.5E001*73 $C336.8P0.0R-5.0T18.5E001*7B $C336.8P0.0R-5.0T18.5E001*7B $C336.8P0.0R-5.0T18.5E001*7B $C337.2P0.2R-5.0T18.5E001*72 $C337.3P0.2R-5.0T18.5E001*73 $C336.8P0.0R-5.0T18.5E001*7B"
- - - -
TOTAL 1 1 string
- - - -
TIME x x Time and Date (UTC) of burst sample 1 Hz from PNI Fluxgate Compass
COMP_avg x x Average of Compass Direction (magN)
COMP_std x x Std Dev Compass Direction
PITCH_avg x x Average of pitch (deg)
PITCH_std x x Std Dev. of pitch (deb)
PITCH_min x x Minimum pitch
PITCH_max x x Maximum pitch
ROLL_avg x x Average of roll (deg)
ROLL_std x x Std Dev. of roll (deb)
ROLL_min x x Minimum roll
ROLL_max x x Maximum roll
CTEMP_avg x x Average of compass temperature (degC)
- - - -
TOTAL 12 1 parameters
Table 5. Upper Ocean Temperature and Salinity w/ Pressure (CTD's)
(serial command thru inductive modem) using Seabird SBE 16-series IMP (internal record data and get data for real time transmission)
Parameter Recorded ea 6 min Reported each 1 Hr Description
TIME x x Time and Date (UTC) of string received at computer
CTD1 x x command echoed, sample num, water temp, conductivity, depth, ctd sample date/time
-     "#00TS 03586, 26.5634, 5.60928, 2.244, 11 Feb 1980, 02:07:35"
CTD2 x x command echoed, sample num, water temp, conductivity, depth, ctd sample date/time
-     "#01TS 03585, 26.4831, 5.59853, 11.444, 11 Feb 1980, 02:07:32"
- - - -
TOTAL 1 1-10 strings

Table 6. Bottom Frame Instruments (serial commanded through acoustic modem for real-time data transmission)

ADCP -- Current Profile and Waves using RDI Teledyne ADCP-WavesMon (Workhorse with pressure sensor) (internally store raw data, but use ascii LogData output for real time transmission)

CTD -- Bottom Ocean Temperature and Salinity w/ Pressure (CTD) using Seabird SBE 16-series

Parameter Recorded ea 6 min Reported each 1 Hr Description
TIME x x Time and Date (UTC) of string received at computer
ADCP x x ensemble number, YY,MM,DD,hh,mm,ss, Hs (m), Tp (sec), Dp (degN), water depth (m/1000), Dmax (m), Tmax (sec), nbins, [spd, dir]*nbins
-     "73, 07, 12, 01, 11, 52, 50, 28, 0.39, 9.10, 129.0, 8664.000, 0.50, 8.00, 50, 0.024, 182, 0.028, 197, 0.038, 165, 0.041, 164, 0.027, 121, 0.020, 96, 0.026, 162, 0.022, 177, 0.021, 183, 0.042, 117, 0.022, 156, 0.016, 117, 0.021, 127, 0.141, 231, 0.350, 220, 0.270, 209, 0.187, 258, 0.184, 259, 0.183, 268, 0.214, 266, 0.235, 272, 0.281, 276, 0.206, 259, 0.291, 15, 0.124, 339, -32768.000, -32768, -32768.000, -32768, -32768.000, -32768, -32768.000, -32768, 0.625, 227, 0.486, 233, 0.215, 254, 0.182, 351, 0.339, 11, 0.428, 22, 0.527, 44, 0.424, 45, 0.657, 41, 0.847, 65, 1.118, 73, 0.766, 52, -32768.000, -32768, -32768.000, -32768, -32768.000, -32768, -32768.000, -32768, 0.537, 271, 0.363, 231, 0.334, 245, 0.229, 257, -32768.000, -32768"
- - - -
CTD3 x x sample num, water temp, conductivity, depth, ctd sample date/time
-     "03586, 26.5634, 5.60928, 32.244, 11 Feb 1980, 02:07:35"
- - - -
TOTAL 2 1-10 strings

References

[PAY1999]Payne, R.E., and S.P. Anderson, 1999: A New Look at Calibration and Use of Eppley Precision Infrared Radiometers. Part II: Calibration and Use of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Improved Meteorology Precision Infrared Radiometer. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16, 739–751.

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